In this respect, the Swaites Hill rapier is an exciting and exceptional find. Bronze Age Palstave Axe Head £ 275.00. A radiocarbon date of 3672 ± 27BP (cal BC 1992–1966 at 2 Sigma, SUERC- 71903 (GU43369)) was obtained from the cremated bone. Home; Eligibility of Finds; News; No. This type of pattern is formed by impressing whipped cord, for example on the urn from West Ashy in Lincolnshire (Longworth 1984, Pl 14a, 226); and twisted cord, eg Llandian, Gwynedd (ibid Pl 18b, 327), Kirriemuir in Tayside (ibid Pl 51C, 313) and Kettle in Fife (ibid 313, Pl 90(e)); and by incision, for example on urns from Chorley, Lancs (ibid 217, Pl 82b), in this case enclosed between single linear incised lines with an incised lattice on the neck and a row of jabs on the shoulder; Tara, Co Meath (ibid Pl 93a, 2236), Inverkeithing, Fife (ibid, Pl 102a, 1823), and West Hampshire (ibid, Pl 107(b), 649). More recent experiments by Walker et al. No information on the sex of any of the individuals could be extracted and no pathological lesions were noted. The rapier was particularly important, being the first example found in Lanarkshire, amongst a corpus of around 40 dirks and rapiers recorded throughout Scotland, of which only four represent the Group 1 type. found that the lightest colours occurred with temperatures of 645 to 940°C, while Mays’ experiments showed no change in colour over 645°C. It is unclear if the disturbed cremation (017) was simply placed upon the lower cairn fabric (029) then covered with the upper cairn material, or if a pit or cist was excavated through the upper cairn material onto (029): any evidence was subsequently destroyed during later disturbance. Several of the cairns and funerary monuments have been excavated, including the so-called ‘Hero's Cairn’ (Canmore ID: 47644) (Christison 1890), and a possible flat cemetery on the summit of Cairngryffe Hill (Canmore ID: 47695) from which urns or similar vessels were recovered during drainage works (ibid.). Of note was the recovery of a Middle Bronze Age copper alloy rapier (see The Rapier) from within Zone 1 (Fig 7). Welcome to the forums! An amorphous core <03.2> exhibited multiple removals in an irregular pattern, though one simple platform had been formed while at another point bipolar working was noted. Sherds <29>, <26.1>, <26.2>, <26.7> and <26.8> indicate the shape of the rim and collar. These demonstrated a certain amount of complexity, with three cremation burials contained within the cists and another disturbed cremation burial with an associated cordoned urn identified beneath the cairn material. A radiocarbon date obtained from the cremated bone in (017) gave a date of 3654 ± 30 (cal BC 2136–1943 at 2 Sigma, SUERC- 71909 (GU43374)). Re-deposited cairn material (009) partially overlay or abutted the edge of upper cairn material (011) and then spread out in all directions, extending 1–3m to the north, west and south and 3–7m to the east and southeast. Published in Scottish Archaeological Journal 42. This was followed by an archaeological evaluation in April 2015 (Gordon 2015): this comprised an 8% evaluation of the ground and the targeted investigation of several probable clearance cairns. Modern contamination was recorded in all 19 samples and was composed of roots, spores, earth worm capsules, fly pupae and insect eggs. It may initially have been deposited within the main body of the cairn, either in isolation or as part of a burial, before modern disturbance displaced it. The weapons themselves are typically quite light, but comparatively robust pieces, and were most often wedged into an organic handle (horn being the most common surviving material), further secured by means of rivets which gripped the hilt tight around the base of the blade and also limited movement. While the contexts within which these were recovered are of note they were excluded from further analytical work after this characterisation. The original form of the butt and the configuration of the hilting mechanism could not be established from the small portion which survived. As the upper cairn material (011) and re-deposited cairn material (009) were removed, a curving line of large stones [012] measuring up to 780mm by 520mm in extent was revealed. A Bronze Age cairn and rapier find from Swaites Hill, Cloburn Quarry, South Lanarkshire, Phase 1: Initial Cist Burials & Possible Early Kerb, Phase 2: The Inner Kerb & Pre-Cairn Activity, Classification and description of lithic artefacts: a discussion of the basic lithic terminology, Forts, camps and motes of the Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, Fire modification of bone: a review of the literature, A New Look at the Late Bronze Age Metalwork from the Tay, Olcote, Breasclete Park, Callanish (Uig parish), burial cairn and quartz scatter, Excavation of an Early Bronze Age Cemetery and other sites at West Water Reservoir, West Linton, Scottish Borders, Préhistoire de la Pierre Taillée Tome 3 (Meudon), Excavation of a Bronze Age ring cairn at Cloburn Quarry, Cairngryffe Hill, Lanarkshire, The excavation and survey of prehistoric enclosures at Blackshouse Burn, Lanarkshire, Olcote, Breasclete Park, Callanish (Uig parish), kerb cairn and quartz scatter, Middle Bronze Age Dirks and Rapiers from Scotland: Some Finds Old and New, The excavation of Cairnwell ring-cairn, Portletten, Aberdeenshire, Unpublished grey literature report by Rathmell Archaeology Ltd, Dating the Scottish Bronze Age: ‘There is clearly much that the material can still tell us, “..beads which have given rise to much dogmatism, controversy and rash speculation”: faience in Early Bronze Age Britain and Ireland, Burnt bones and Teeth: an Experimental Study of Color, Morphology, Crystal Structure and Shrinkage, Time, temperature and oxygen availability: an experimental study of the effects of environmental conditions on the colour and organic content of cremated bone, with contributions by Alan Duffy, Rob Engl, Fraser Hunter, Rachel Ives, Ann Macsween, Jackaline Robertson and Suerc Illustrated by Graeme Carruthers, Attila Csaba and Leonora O'Brien, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.465.4369&rep=rep1&type=pdf, Neolithic Pits, a Bronze Age Cremation and an Early Iron Age Ring-Ditch at Newton Farm, Cambuslang, Lanarkshire, A Neolithic Structure and Bronze Age Activity at West Flank Road, Drumchapel, Glasgow, Blades for the gods, blades for the dead: a Bronze Age rapier from Swaites Hill, South Lanarkshire, Excavation of a Bronze Age Ring-Groove House at Inverkip, Inverclyde, A Bronze Age Cairn at Coneypark, Stirling, Castlebank Street and the origins of the Bishop's house/Partick Castle, Excavating a Mid-Iron Age crouched inhumation on the shores of Loch Gruinart, Islay, Argyll and Bute, The excavation of Bankhead homestead, Darvel, Ayrshire, Remnants of a cremation burial from cist [016], Charcoal-rich deposit over possible hearth, Australian Research Council ERA 2012 Journal List, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), European Reference Index for the Humanities (ERIH PLUS), International Medieval Bibliography (IMB), Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers, Web of Science/Emerging Sources Citation Index. It is likely to belong to the Acton Park 2, Taunton (Cemmaes) or Pennard metalwork assemblage, corresponding to Needham’s (1997) Period 5, c. 1500-1150BC. The site of Cairngryffe Hill Fort (4), which was excavated in 1939 prior to being quarried away, is also close by. This suggested pre-cairn anthropic activity such as clearance or agriculture in the immediate environs of the site, with any such activity potentially occurring closer to Zone 3. The floor consisted of a paved surface [031], formed from sub-angular flat stones between 80–460mm in length and less than 30mm thick. The fill (023) of Cist 1 was a light orange-brown sandy silt with inclusions of small stones, fragments of birch charcoal (Betula sp.) Two of these <05> and <06> from the topsoil were microblades, each with a retouched notch associated with a shallow retouch edges (on the same edge and opposed respectively). There was also one chert platform rejuvenation flake <014> showing management of cores. The rapier blade and handle are part of a Bronze Age hoard discovered a short distance inland from Black Rock, East Brighton, in late 1913 or early 1914. These culminated in the full area excavation of Swaites Hill cairn (Canmore ID: 47645), Cloburn Quarry, South Lanarkshire. The decoration is also comparable: both objects have five flanking grooves on either side of the midrib, which increases to seven towards the tip, and the midrib is very broad and flat towards the butt, with the flanking grooves terminating outwith, as opposed to beneath, the rivet holes. It measured 19m long and 3.5m wide and was up to 0.26m in depth. Sherds from two Bronze Age urns – a collared urn and an urn of undetermined type – were recovered from the excavations at Swaites Hill. The excavation formed the culmination of a series of works which began with a Historic Environment Appraisal (Rees and Turner 2013), which identified three historic environment assets within the area of the quarry extension. The interior was filled to a depth of 470mm by (021) a mid-orange-brown sandy silt with occasional flecks of birch charcoal (Betula sp.). The most complete cremation was that of the secondary burial in Cist 1, the remains of which had probably been carefully collected after burning (see below). The team needed to act quickly because the force of the flooding would damage the timbers, and chemicals in the water could start their decay. It was oriented northnortheast-southsouthwest and sub-rectangular in plan, measuring 1.2m by 0.6m and up to 0.5m in depth with several flat stones making up its sides. Fragments of an Early Bronze Age urn (see pottery) were also recovered from the re-deposited cairn material and these, too, may originally have derived from a now-destroyed burial within the cairn. Such artefacts are more often found in wet places such as peat bogs where they have been placed as votive deposits, so the discovery of an isolated specimen in close association with a burial monument of broadly comparable date is of immense significance. The dates place the activity on site within the early Bronze Age with later, 19th century, disturbance. Layers (033) and (027), found in Zones 3 and 4 under and between some of the stones forming the outer kerb [012], were most likely the remains of the pre-cairn ground surface. These included a chert flake within Cist 1 and a broken chert blade and flake within Cist 2. Incredibly, they were both placed in the water as gifts to the gods. When the floor was removed a second cremation was uncovered. Just as the colour of cremated remains can signify the temperatures reached during the burning process, variations in the colour of bone fragments can give an indication of uneven burning of the body. Bronze Age Knife £ 625.00. Colours of burnt bone can range from shades of red, brown, black, blue, grey, beige, or white. It is uncertain where these swords fit into this panoply, or how they were viewed by warriors of the time. Light grey/beige or white colouring occurs with temperatures in excess of 645°C (Mays, 1998, 217). As with Cist 1, further level stones were placed above and slightly overhanging, in this case only on the northern side. Both included quantities of wood charcoal, derived from alder, and with the level of charcoal much higher in (027) than in (033). They are most likely a natural phenomenon. As well as recovering struck lithics, the two hand-excavated trenches suggested that the probable ring cairn was indeed very likely to be a prehistoric cairn. The object falls within Burgess and Gerloff's (1981) Group 1 category of dirks and rapiers, namely ‘Weapons with Multiple Grooves, Ribs and Channels.’ Within this particular group, it falls within the first subgroup – ‘Weapons with Multiple Grooves.’ A total of 17 examples of this subgroup were noted in Dirks and Rapiers in Great Britain and Ireland (Burgess & Gerloff 1981), with two further examples identified in Scotland in the 1990s and late 2000s and subsequently published in O’Connor and Cowie (1995) and Cowie and Hall (2010) respectively. A rare find of a bronze age rapier sword blade, approximately 3,500 years old, was donated to Torquay Museum by two members of the Newton Abbot and District Metal Detecting Club. Both surfaces are sooted. These Bronze Age swords represent the earliest swords of Europe and some of the oldest objects in the Museum. A burnt spread (032), was excavated, overlying (026) and partly within a gap in the inner kerb but beneath the loosely-compacted cairn fabric (011) within Zone 1. Respecting the integrity of the context and find numbers, each bone fragment was then examined and sorted according to anatomical area and the results recorded on an Excel spreadsheet. The Glasgow Archaeological Society was founded in 1856 to promote the study of archaeology with a special emphasis on western Scotland. The rapier sword was found locally near a site which had been inhabited for a period of at least 5,000 years, dating back from the Neolithic period to the present day. The date recovered from this soil horizon gave a terminus post quem for the cairn with a date range from the early 23rd to the early 22nd century BC. Their hard work and diligence on site was very much appreciated. 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